Monitoring and Evaluation

Monitoring and Evaluation Resources for Health Programs

Monitoring and Evaluation (M&E): Some Tools, Methods and Approaches - This World Bank booklet presents a sample of M&E tools, methods and approaches, including several data collection methods, analytical frameworks, and types of evaluation and review. For each of these, a summary is provided of the following: their purpose and use; advantages and disadvantages; costs, skills, and time required; and key references.

Impact Evaluations under Budget, Time and Data Constraints - The purpose of this World Bank booklet is to provide advice to those planning an impact evaluation, so that they can select the most rigorous methods available within the constraints they face. The booklet is also intended to clarify the nature of the trade-offs between evaluation rigor and the budget, time and data which are available for an evaluation. It is hoped that this booklet will encourage managers to conduct impact evaluations when they might otherwise have viewed them as too expensive or time-consuming to be conducted to a high standard. Thus the desired outcome is an increase in the quality and quantity of rigorous impact evaluations which are conducted.

Programme Manager’s Planning, Monitoring and Evaluation toolkit (2004) - The toolkit is a supplement to the UNFPA programming guidelines. It provides guidance and options for UNFPA Country Office staff to improve planning, monitoring and evaluation (PM&E) activities in the context of results based program management. It is also useful for program managers at headquarters and for national program managers and counterparts.

CARE Standards and Resources on M&E

CARE Evaluation Policy - This Evaluation Policy is being articulated to help CARE achieve its vision and mission of poverty reduction and rights fulfilment, through the promotion of institutional accountability, continuous learning and transparent sharing of project and programme evaluations both internally and externally. This policy is a complement to and consistent with the CARE International Program Principles and Standards.

Guidelines to Monitoring and Evaluation - Initially developed for CARE Uganda, these guidelines have had wide circulation in the wider CARE. This very practical manual is aimed at improving M&E in CARE by providing a useful technical resource for planning project M&E systems.

Project Design Handbook - This very practical handbook is a guide to translating CARE's vision, principles and values into action through logical design of projects and programs.

CARE Project Evaluation Guidelines for Reproductive Health - The purpose of this paper is to use the work that has been done on the general design, monitoring, and evaluation (DME) process in CARE to develop more detailed information on designing a reproductive health (RH) evaluation, particularly taking into consideration the rights-based approach to programming. This will provide the foundation for a discussion on participatory evaluation of RH projects, followed by a guide to doing one.

Maternal Health

Maternal & Newborn Standards and Indicators Compendium (2004)
This document was designed by the CORE Group and USAID to assist program designers working for international NGOs and PVOs in the field of maternal and child health. This manual is broken down into five interrelated tables that correspond to the temporal phases of a woman's reproductive cycle Pre-Conception/Inter-Conception, Antenatal, Labor and Delivery, Postpartum Care and Newborn Care. The purpose of this manual is to assist program designers in selecting essential components and actions for their chosen interventions and to select appropriate indicators.

Guidelines for Monitoring the Availability and use of Obstetric Services (1997)
These guidelines, developed by UNICEF, WHO and UNFPA, propose an alternative approach based on monitoring the processes, or interventions, aimed at reducing maternal mortality. There are several distinct advantages to this approach. First, it avoids the substantial expense involved in generating maternal mortality estimates, which in many cases may not be accurate, or which may reflect a situation 10 or more years in the past. Second, process indicators can provide information essential for guiding policies and programs.

AMDD Workbook: Using the UN Process Indicators of Emergency Obstetric Services
This workbook was designed as a resource for program managers working to increase women’s access to emergency obstetric services. It is a companion piece to the Guidelines for Monitoring the Availability and Use of Obstetric Services (above).

Prevention of Maternal Mortality - The Design and Evaluation of Maternal Health Programs
This manual is a technical document with a development aim. In its technical sense, the manual provides guidance and tools for the design and evaluation of maternal mortality programs - it is about what practitioners call "operations research" or "health systems research." But its broader purpose is one of development - to enhance the ability of people and institutions in developing countries to identify key challenges and generate effective responses to

Compendium of Maternal and Newborn Health Tools
The compendium includes a variety of population- and facility-based assessment tools that use both qualitative and quantitative approaches and that can be used in at different levels of the health system for the monitoring and evaluation of MNH programs.

Gender and Sexuality

A Framework to Identify Gender Indicators for Reproductive Health and Nutrition Programming - The Interagency Gender Working Group’s (IGWG) Subcommittee on Research and Indicators took upon itself the task of articulating the role of gender in population, health and nutrition (PHN) programming and of explicitly including gender in monitoring and evaluation activities. The subcommittee has developed a framework for incorporating gender into the design and evaluation of PHN programs and provided a large set of examples as a tool for PHN program

Manual for Evaluating Quality of Care from a Gender Perspective (2000) - This manual is designed for reproductive health institutions that want to assess the quality of care of their services and programmes from a broad gender perspective. It proposes an evaluation methodology based on observation of the physical aspects of the clinic; client entry observations; observations of consultations or counselling of clients; client exit interviews, service provider interviews and a document review.

Instituto Promundo in Brazil and the use of the Gender Equitable Men (GEM) Scale - The Gender-equitable Men (GEM) Scale measures attitudes toward gender norms. More specifically, it includes 35 items that measure what are commonly understood as “traditional” attitudes toward gender norms related to HIV/AIDS and pregnancy prevention, violence, sexual relationships, domestic chores and care giving, and homosexuality.

Gender and Indicators Cutting Edge Pack - Gender-sensitive measurements are critical for building the case for taking gender (in)equality seriously, for enabling better planning and actions by gender and non-gender specialists, and for holding institutions accountable to their commitments on gender. Yet measurement techniques and data remain limited and poorly utilised, making it difficult to know if efforts are on track to achieve gender equality goals and commitments. This Overview Report examines conceptual and methodological approaches to gender and measurements of change with a focus on indicators, examining current debates and good practice from the grassroots to the international levels.


National AIDS Programs: A Guide to Monitoring and Evaluation (2000)
This UNAIDS guide has grown out of the collective experience of a large number of people and organizations in monitoring and evaluation of HIV prevention and AIDS care programs at the national level. The guide describes the main features of a sound M&E system and proposes indicators for key areas of HIV prevention, AIDS care and STI control programs.

Policy Action

Monitoring and Evaluating Advocacy (2002)
The limitations of project work and the need for more long-term structural solutions to poverty is increasingly recognized in the development community. Concurrently advocacy as a stated NGO activity has become increasingly important, though in some cases there is a lack of clarity about what this means in practice. Given the increasing resources committed to advocacy, it is important that we can understand what makes this work effective – how and when does it really makes a difference to poor and marginalized people? How can we learn to do it better?

Adolescent Sexual and Reproductive Health

A guide to Monitoring and Evaluating Adolescent Reproductive Health Programs (2002)
This Guide is designed for program managers who monitor and evaluate adolescent reproductive health programs to help them improve their ability to create adolescent sexual and reproductive health programs and policies.

Reproductive Health Assessment (RHA) Toolkit for Conflict-Affected Women
The Reproductive Health Assessment (RHA) Toolkit for Conflict-Affected Women was developed to meet the increased need for accurate reproductive health data among conflict-affected populations. The RHA Toolkit informs program planning, monitoring and evaluation, and advocacy efforts. It enables field-based staff with limited survey expertise to collect information about safe motherhood, family planning, sexual history, sexually transmitted infections, HIV/AIDS, gender-based violence, and female genital cutting. It also has sampling instructions, a training manual, questionnaire, data entry program, analysis guide with preprogrammed analyses, and data use suggestions.